Einstein was responsible for the Theory of Relativity, which states, that the speed of light is constant and travels at 186,282 miles per second in a vacuum. Another condition of relativity is that as you travel and approach the speed of light, time slows down, length contracts and mass increases and all this occurs exponentially as you approached the speed of light. Additionally, nothing could travel faster than the speed of light. The speed of light is a constant speed in a vacuum.
Since we all live in a 4-dimensional world where we have 3 spatial dimensions and a time dimension. The 3 spatial dimensions are length, width, and height. If we wish to describe an event we must also throw in a time component.
If for example, you are going to meet your friend John, you will need a location and time to be able to meet him. If he simply says meet me on the second floor of the building on 2nd and main street, there is a good chance you will not meet John. Since he did not specify a time, John could be planning on meeting tomorrow when you assumed he meant today.
Now, this not only applies to events on Earth, but to the entire universe. We (people on earth) are rotating on the surface of the Earth at 1,037 mph, and the Earth is rotating around the sun at 66,660 mph. Our sun is spinning around the Milky Way galaxy at 515,000 mph and the Milky Way is clipping through space at 2,237,000 mph. As you can guess, it is not all in the same direction either. The animation below illustrates the motion of our solar system within the Milky Way galaxy. Of course, the larger yellow object in the middle is the sun, the gray streamer is Mercury, white is Venus, blue is Earth and red is Mars.
Motion Of Our Solar System
If you are familiar with special relativity (Einstein's theory), you know that time varies relative to the motion between two objects. For example, if you were standing in a field and you had an exact twin (let's call him Flash), and he jumped in a rocket and sped around the Earth for a year, then returned, Flash would not only be physically younger than you, but his watch would also be behind yours. The amount of time difference would depend on his speed. The faster he went the slower his watch would increment relative to yours.
Now, if you were on Mars and you called up Flash on Earth and asked him to meet you at 3 pm, 1 year from now (Earth time) at your place, he could not just simply jump on a rocket and plan to meet you unless he calculated where Mars would be in space at that particular meeting time.
Not only would your position be dependent on the location of Mars in space a year from then but it would also depend on his speed. The speed he traveled there would actually cause the distance to contract on his way to Mars. In other words, as he high tailed it to Mars, the speed at which he traveled would shorten the distance and time it took him to get there from Flash's standpoint.
The distance he traveled and his age would be shorter than your elapsed time. When ole Flash landed on Mars he would have to increase the time on his watch to match your time and you would be older than him, with the difference dependent on his speed.
To meet up with Mars at the right time, Flash would have to calculate the difference in time and distance due to the reduction in time and distance caused by relativity.
The TIME DILATION chart you see contains the equation for time dilation which simply determines the difference in the amount of time it took Flash to get to Mars compared to the time Flash called to tell you he was beginning his trip.
The US's GPS satellites must also take into consideration relativity of the rate of speed the satellites travel around the earth vs the speed of the earth's rotation, if not the locations the GPS system would grow increasingly incorrect and effectively render GPS satellites worthless.
If we did not live in an orderly, law-driven universe, just simple things like modern travel would be quite different. GPS would not exist and travelers would have to use the old-fashioned way of travel - paper maps!
So, as you can see time and space are connected and vary depending on motion between two positions and their speed. This difference could be between a motionless object and one in motion or two objects in motion and the difference in their motion relative to the other.
A verse in the Bible 2 Peter 3:8 states: "But do not let this one fact escape your notice, beloved, that with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years like one day."
Now back to ole Flash, if he could let you know he had left the Earth and buzzed around in space at 0.999999991% of the speed of light for a year of your time on Mars and then land on Mars, at the end of your year, when he got out of his space ship, he would only be hours older than you but you a year older.
Today there are numerous particle accelerators (colliders) in the world that smash particles together at various energies in man's quest to understand various scientific principles however the daddy of them all is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the largest particle accelerator which accelerates two particle beams in opposite directions at 0.999999991 times the speed of light (speed of light is 186,282 miles per second) and then at the proper moment directs the beams head on at one another.
If it were possible to sit on top of the particle beams at that speed for a day (as perceived sitting on the beam), when you hopped off at the end of your day traveling at 0.999999991 times the speed of light, the elapsed time for those not riding the beam would be 20.41 years. Clearly a very awesome piece of hardware.
Physicists and scientists hope to soon see evidence of the existence of multiple dimensions. This evidence could exist by the sudden disappearance of a particle just after a collision with another particle as it exited our 3d world into another dimension.
Already this accelerator has accomplished amazing feats. In 2012 they made history in confirming the existence of the Higgs Boson or "God Particle" as it is sometimes called. This particle is responsible for the Higgs Field which is responsible for giving mass to other particles.
Finally Time And Events:
We take for granted what time really is. Consider how two very different conditions can vary so much. Try taking a clock into a room with no windows and stare at the hands on the clock and watch as you allow 15 minutes to pass, it will drag by.
Now find something you really enjoy, maybe reading a book or watching a football game and set a clock for 15 minutes and this time will zip by.
Think about a dream you have had, one of those that is action packed. One of those dreams where you travel around the world and encounter events that would require far more time than you were asleep.
When it is all said and done time is a very fluid thing and is not fixed like we are conditioned to think. We are conditioned to think of time as fixed and well defined by the environment around us. Modern times has conditioned us even more than previous centuries.
It is interesting that there and many people that have experienced OBE's or NDE's that return to claim that in their experience that they did not feel that time existed but rather it was more a sense of the present and multiple experiences could occur seemingly at the same moment.